Brain Tumor: Symptoms and Treatement

Monday, March 30, 2009



By Dr. K N Krishna, Consultant Neuro Surgeon, Wockhardt Hospitals

What is a Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is a disease in which certain cells of the brain and it’s covering called the meninges grow without any control inside the brain.

Kind of Brain Tumors

There are two main types of brain tumors:

( a) Benign tumors are those tumors which generally grow slowly and do not destroy normal brain tissue. They do not generally regrow after radical surgical removal. They usually do not need radiotherapy.

( b) Malignant tumors are typically called brain cancers. These tumors can grow again after surgical removal. They are very aggressive tumors and difficult to treat them. They are basically of two types

(1)Primary brain cancer originates inside the brain.

(2) Secondary or metastatic brain cancer spreads to the brain from another cancer site in the body like lung cancer and breast cancer. This is again a very difficult tumor to treat and the tumor can regrow after treatment.

Causes of a Brain Tumor

The cause of primary brain cancer is unknown. As mentioned above, secondary brain cancers grow from a cancer elsewhere in the body.

Symptoms of Brain Tumor

The Symptoms are mainly of two types

1.Due to addition of extra mass (tumor and fluid retention) inside the skull which increases the pressure. They may be headache, vomiting, blurring of vision/double vision, vertigo

2.Due to irritation or paralysis of the part of the brain or the nerves coming after the brain resulting in seizure, weakness of one limb or one half of the body, vertigo with imbalance, buzzing sound in the ear with diminished hearing (specially one sided), pain or numbness in one half of the face, difficulty in swallowing, nasal regurgitation, change in voice, repeated aspiration into the lungs.

Diagnosis of a Brain Tumor

The doctor may ask about symptoms and medical history and perform a physical exam, with particular attention to the neurologic exam such as muscle strength, co-ordination, reflexes, response to stimuli and alertness. The doctor will also look into your eyes to check for signs of brain swelling

Diagnostic Tests may include:MRI Scan a test that uses harmless (even to foetus and elderly) magnetic waves to scan the brain and nerves. CT Scan a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the brain.

Treatment For Brain Tumor

The main aim of treatment is not only to prevent further damage to the brain but also recover the functions of the brain by removal of the tumor itself and additionally by using the medication.

Medicines: The doctor prescribes medicines to reduce brain swelling (steroids), seizures (anti epileptic), etc. the latter might have to be taken for longer duration.

Craniotomy and Resection of tumor: Most of the tumor surgeries are done under general anesthesia so that the patient is relaxed and do not suffer from any pain.However in recent times certain brain tumors are removed under local anesthesia where in patient will be awake and talking but not feel the pain , this special procedure is done in such situation where the tumor is growing in close proximity to vital centers like the speech centers ,center for movement etc in the brain.

To access the brain tumor, a portion of the skull bone is delicately cut using high speed pneumatic bone dissector so that it can be replaced and fixed after the surgery. Neurosurgeons operate under high magnification and lighting by using special operating microscope and endoscopes which help in reaching various parts of the brain through narrow gaps safely without damaging the normal brain around the tumor.

In addition operative tools like operative imaging, neuronavigation, etc. help the surgeon in accurately localizing and precisely delineating the tumor from the normal structure and then remove it radically. Special equipments such as CUSA and lasers are sometimes necessary to breakdown deep routed or a difficult tumor.

Usually the patient is kept in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the night of surgery for monitoring his neurological functions closely. Next day morning he is started on oral feeds and shifted to the ward for nursing care He will be given some injections for a few days and subsequently, oral drugs started. Patient will be released from the hospital in 4-5 days and followed up in the clinic.
Stereotactic biopsy: Here, the neurosurgeon uses a MRI /CT scan images of the brain to delineate the tumor.

By using a special stereotaxy frame or Computor assisted Neuro Navigation system the tumor site is localized to an accuracy of 1mm. Thena small needle is pushed in to the tumor through the hole and a sample of tumor tissue is obtained. This tissue is sent for pathological tests to identify the tumor. This type of surgery is done for tumors located deep inside the brain or near critical areas. Depending on the pathological tests, further treatment is recommended.

How difficult is it to Treat Brain Tumor.

With advances in brain tumor surgery management, most patients with benign tumors have normal lives. Brain cancer patients have a shorter period of survival and longevity, depending on the type and location of the tumor. With early diagnosis and microsurgical medical tumor removal followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients even with tumors have led almost a normal life for few years. Therefore, do not overlook a headache or any other symptom of brain tumor.



DR (Prof). K.N.Krishna
M.Ch (Neuro Surgery).
Chief Consultant Neuro Surgeon
Wockhardt Hospitals,Bangalore

To schedule an appoinment with Dr K.N.Krishna,write into enquiries@wockhardthospitals.net or log on here

1 comments:

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台灣大學

2009年3月3日 上午 6:15
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週期表

2009年3月3日 上午 7:38
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骨骼
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肌肉



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血液
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糞便

2009年3月3日 上午 8:27
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分類:解剖學


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解剖學

http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E6%B4%BB%E9%AB%94%E8%A7%A3%E5%89%96&variant=zh-tw
活體解剖

活體解剖
維基百科,自由的百科全書
(重定向自活體解剖)
跳轉到: 導航, 搜尋

從詞源上來說,活體解剖是指為為生理學或病理學科學研究而對活著的動物進行的解剖。 最近,在人們,尤其是動物權利激進分子的觀念中,活體解剖這一條目被廣泛地應用到任何形式的有動物受到傷害的實驗中,無論這些實驗是否有明確的書面表明是活體解剖。

動物權利提倡者致力於通過有關活體解剖的批判性討論而支援其立場。對此,動物實驗的支持者們回應道,動物實驗過程中通常不需要使用侵入性的手段(暗指活體解剖)。動物權利激進分子一直以來反對和抨擊諸如杭廷頓生命科學研究中心(Huntingdon Life Sciences)一類的機構,因為這類機構從事於——依照批評人士主張的——動物活體解剖研究。激進分子們為此採取的反擊策略多種多樣,從純粹的和平抗議直到實施恐怖主義迫害。

近期(約于19世紀以來)關於活體解剖的論爭主要圍繞一些道德問題,諸如,動物活體解剖所產生的進步意義究竟是否在價值考量上勝於它所造成的痛苦;以及關於動物活體解剖可以帶來的益處的描述是否被刻意誇大。對於那些嚴格提倡動物權利觀點勝於考慮如何盡量減少實驗中動物所承受痛苦的人士而言,他們很可能這樣認為:無需注重動物活體解剖可能為社會帶來的好處,因為動物活體解剖就其對動物權利的侵犯,本身即成為不道德的行為。

活體解剖被長期實踐於人體。被譽為「解剖學之父」的希羅費羅,即在亞歷山大的世界上第一所醫學院的創建者,曾被特士良指控解剖了至少600名活人囚犯。在近代史上,戰時納粹的約瑟夫·孟克,以及日本軍國主義(731部隊、九州帝國大學醫院的石山福二),均于第二次世界大戰期間,各自在其集中營囚犯身上執行了活體解剖。這些實驗的科學價值是可疑的,且無論出於何種目的,人類活體解剖在道德規範方面同樣不能成立。在一些案例中,人類活體解剖的目的僅僅是對戰俘造成痛苦,而非有目的的研究。作為對此類暴行的響應,世界醫學會採用了《紐倫堡法典》作為行業內部關於此類事件的道德規範。

[編輯] 參見

* 動物實驗
* 大屠殺
* 實驗法
* 關於活體解剖與實驗的論爭
* 動物權利
* 動物援助
* 動物解放陣線
* 致力於以倫理對待動物者
* 731部隊

[編輯] 參考書目

* Mary Roach, Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers (2003)
* Vivisections at Kyushu University Hospital in 1945

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1個分類: 解剖學

2009年3月3日 上午 8:39
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動物權利

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動物解放陣線

http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E5%9C%B0%E7%90%83%E8%A7%A3%E6%94%BE%E9%98%B5%E7%BA%BF&variant=zh-tw
地球解放陣線

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直接行動

2009年3月3日 上午 8:43
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分類:顏色
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顏色
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繪畫術語
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繪畫術語是在繪畫領域常用的詞彙用的詞彙和日常的意義不同,如「色相」在日常用語中指的是色情的領域,而在繪畫中是指顏色的本質。常見的繪畫術語有:

* 色相
* 色度
* 明度
* 色調
* 顏色
* 透視
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* 寫生
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2個分類: 藝術相關列表 | 繪畫術語http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E7%B9%AA%E7%95%AB%E8%A1%93%E8%AA%9E&variant=zh-tw

2009年3月3日 下午 9:25
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http://silver.neep.wisc.edu/~lakes/BoneElectr.html ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF BONE

2009年3月3日 下午 10:42

悉怛多缽怛囉阿門證據時效

May 14, 2009 at 7:00 AM  

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